Top 10 Highly Cited Articles


Coccidiosis induces huge economic losses to poultry production. Its control through anticoccidial live vaccines and drugs has been very successful with some limitations because of the cost of production of live vaccines, drug resistance, and residues representing public health concerns. Consequently, there is a crucial need for drug-free production of foods. Useful strategies include environmental, immunological, and genetic approaches; feed additives are recent attitudes involving probiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, phytobiotics as essential oils, antioxidants, and nanobiotics (nanoparticles). A combination of such additives is a recent useful trend. Transgenic Eimeria parasite could fill in the gap in the control of chicken coccidiosis as an efficient anticoccidial vaccine with improved protective efficacy using multiple vaccine antigens. Alternatives justify further studies as therapeutic or prophylactic anticoccidial agents. Full biological and toxicology profiles are crucial for the promising materials which deserve to be applied on a larger scale.

  • Hanem Fathy Khater1, Hocine Ziam2, Asghar Abbas3, Rao Zahid Abbas4, Muhammad Asif Raza3, Kashif Hussain2, Eman Z Younis5, Ibrahim Taha Ridwan6, and Abdelfattah Selimand7
  • 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt. 2Biotechnologies, Environment and Health Laboratory, Saad Dahlab University, Blida 1, BP 270, 9060 Ouled Yaich, Blida, Algeria. 3Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. 4Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 5Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences-Ghemines, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya; 6Supplementary General Sciences Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Future University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt. 7Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural advancement sector of entire world for increasing crop yield. However, its exposure is not limited only to target organisms instead it is affecting various non-target organisms among which fish being the most prominent one. In severe cases acute amount of various pesticides caused death of fish while lethal changes observed in case of lower amount of these pesticides. Changes in hematological parameters like red blood cells, white blood cells or plasma and serum level alterations leading to histological changes involving liver, kidneys, gills, muscles, brain, intestine in many species of fish exposed to different pesticides. Moreover, genotoxicity was also observed in many cases induced by different categories of pesticides. Extensive and continuous usage of these toxicants affecting the aquatic systems at severe level as a result getting bio-accumulated in food chain. This article emphasized over the pesticidal induced hematological and serum level alterations observed in fish.

  • Rabia Tahir 1, Abdul Ghaffar 1,*, Ghulam Abbas 2, Tanveer Hussain Turabi 3, Shabana Kusar 4, Xiaoxia Du 5, Samia Naz 6, Habiba Jamil 1, Samra 7, Sana Riaz 1 and Sherein S Abdelgayed 8,*
  • ¹Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan 2Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan 3Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan 4Department of Chemistry, Government College Women University Faisalabad, Pakistan 5Shandong Vocational Animal Science and Veterinary College, Weifang, China 6Department of Zoology, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan 7Department of Zoology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan 8Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

Fungal contamination of crops and production of toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) are the inevitable issues throughout the world, mainly in the developing countries. These toxins associated with adverse effects on animals, humans and crops, result in health issues and economic losses. The major mycotoxins that have agro-economic importance are aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, zearalenone and trichothecenes. These toxins are produced by different types of molds that contaminate crops under favorable conditions and become the part of animal and human diet. Several studies have described their hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, toxigenic and mutagenic characteristics, and most mycotoxins represent a considerable risk to animal and human life. Compound stomach animals show some resistance against mycotoxicosis as compared to monogastric animals due to capability of rumen microbiota to degrade mycotoxins. The adverse effects of mycotoxins in humans include hepatocellular carcinoma, Reye's syndrome, Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), immunosuppression, abdominal pain, neural tube defects, infertility and retarded growth in children. This review describes different types of mycotoxins and their adverse effects on animal species and humans by keeping in mind the One-Health aspect.

  • Muhammad Imran1,2,3,4,*, Shengbo Cao1,2,3, Shengfeng Wan5, Zheng Chen6,7, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi4, Ning Wang8. Muhammad Noman Naseem4,9 and Jawad Munawar10
  • 1Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine in Hubei Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University (HZAU), Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China. 2State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, HZAU, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China. 3The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, HZAU, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China. 4Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 5Department of Nephrology, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases and Immunology, Henan provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou 450003, China. 6Key Laboratory for Animal Health of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang 330045, Jiangxi, China. 7Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, Jiangxi, China. 8School of Bioengineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong, China 9Centre for Animal Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), The University of Queensland, Australia. 10Government Poultry Farm Sargodha, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development, Punjab, Pakistan.

Babesiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and related associated risk factors of bovine babesiosis in district Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 1258 animals (n = 532 buffaloes; n = 726 cattle) were sampled through random sampling technique and analyzed for the detection of inclusion bodies resembling babesiosis through thin smear microscopy. Risk factors regarding breed, specie, age, month of the year, gender, and season were statistically analyzed using chi-square test on SPSS to find the association of different risk factors with the occurrence of this protozoan pathogen. The study has revealed an overall 34.02% prevalence of babesiosis in bovines in district Lahore. The infection rate was statistically insignificant (P>0.05) in cattle's (34.57%) compared to buffaloes (33.27%). The females are at more risk of having babesiosis as compared to males in cattle (OR=01.24, CI=0.82-1.89) as well as buffaloes (OR=01.32, CI=0.81-2.14). The study concludes that babesiosis is prevalent in study district and adult animas and summer months were found significantly associated with the occurrence of this tick-borne disease. These study findings will aid in establishment of better strategies for prevention and control of disease.

  • Sadaqat Ali1, 2, Muhammad Ijaz1, Arslan Ahmed1, Muhammad Umair Aziz1, Muhammad Naveed1, Muhammad Umar Javed1, Yasir Nawab1, Nauman Zaheer Ghumman1and Awais Ghaffar1
  • 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Punjab, Pakistan. 2University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 61300, Punjab, Pakistan

Poultry industry is growing day by day and it is a major and cheap source of animal protein for human beings. Various bacteria cause serious illness and variety of diseases in poultry birds. The use of tetracycline antibiotics has been increased 4 times in recent years to treat such diseases, leading to the development of drug resistant bacteria in veterinary medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance profile of tetracycline in avian Escherichia coli strains isolated from free ranging chickens of Anhui province, China. For this purpose, disk diffusion method was used to examine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains (n=203) against tetracycline, minocycline, and doxycycline. However, PCR analysis was utilized for detection of the tetracycline resistant genes; tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetM. The overall frequency of phenotypic resistance was 29.1%, which was highest to tetracycline (14.3%), followed by minocycline (6.9%), and doxycycline (7.9%). Whereas the genotypic resistance rate was 24.1%, which include 10.3%, 7.9%, 4.4%, 1.0% and 0.5% resistance rate of tetA, tetG, tetC, tetA + tetC + tetG, and tetA + tetC genes, respectively. Conversely, no isolates were positive for the tetB and tetM genes. The rate of phenotypic resistance (29.1%) was almost in line with genotypic resistance rate (24.1%). Our study demonstrates that chickens are not important contributors to bacterial resistance in an extensive farming system. As such, restrictions on the use of antibiotics could prevent the emergence of resistant pathogens. Furthermore, this is first study of the occurrence of antibiotic resistant E. coli strains in free ranging chickens of Anhui province, China.

  • Khalid Mehmood 1, Rana Muhammad Bilal1 and Hui Zhang 2,*
  • 1Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan 2College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, China

Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a novel emerging pathogen contaminated extensively in animal feed and food chains, posing a huge economic loss for animal industry and high risk for human health. This pathogen is a robust omnipresent heat resistant spore former, able to form biofilm and isolated from different environments such as food and atmosphere that occur all year round without any particular geographic distribution. The potential of survival for B. cereus spores in unfavorable conditions pose a considerable threat to food safety and also cause economic losses to the food industry. B. cereus aggravates acute diarrhea and malnourishment in poultry by inducing gizzard erosion and ulceration (GEU). It will facilitate persistent other bacterial infection in the lungs via damaging gastric intestine tract. Also, it can cause serious food safety because it seems difficult to fully prevent their presence in food. It may cause gastrointestinal diseases that trigger emetic and diarrheal symptoms as well as general and local infections related to the respiratory tracts of immunologically threatened individual and newborns. B. cereus produces a wide range of potential virulence factors, including heat stable/labile toxins (cerulide, NHE, HBL, CytK, Ent-FM, bc-D-ENT, CLO, HlyII, HlyIII) and tissue-destructive enzymes (PI-PLC, PC-PLC, SMase, ?-lactamase, InhA1, NprA), but their roles and molecular mechanism in specific infections have not been clarified yet. This review provided a historical record of possible risk factors and pathogenesis of animal industry and highlights the implications for animal industry and food safety by ingestion of the feed-borne Bacillus cereus.

  • Md Atiqul Haque ,1, 2, Hongkun Quan ,1, Zonghui Zuo ,1, Ahrar Khan , 3, Naila Siddique ,4 and Cheng He ,1,*
  • 1Key Lab of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonoses of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Science, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, 5200, Bangladesh 3Shandong Vocational Animal Science and Veterinary College, Weifang, 261061, China 4National Reference Lab for Poultry Diseases (NRLPD) Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan

Agro-aquatic ecosystems are mainly and persistently exposed to various unwanted chemicals and pollutants due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals such as pesticides, insecticides, heavy metals, germicides, drug residues, industrial wastes, and feed additives. Randomly kept 16 active fish (bighead carp) in four unlike groups (A to D). Blood and serum were collected on days 5, 10, and 15 of the experiment. Five fish from each group were slaughtered on day 15 of the trial to study histopathological alterations. Mild to moderate different physical ailments like jerking movement, erratic swimming, and mucous secretion from the mouth of fish kept in group D were observed after day 10 of post-exposure. Significantly, lower erythrocyte count, Hb, and hematocrit values while increased values of total white blood cells and neutrophil counts were recorded in fish of groups (C-D). Results on serum chemistry showed a significantly increased quantity of liver function tests (ALT and AST), renal functional tests (urea and creatinine), and cardiac biomarkers. Results on micronuclei and comet assay indicated an increased frequency of DNA damage. The frequency of nuclear and morphological variations in RBCs of fish of group (D) significantly increased compared to the control group. Results on microscopic levels exhibited different histopathological alterations in gills like twisting of secondary lamellae, uplifting of lamellae, lamellar disorganization, and necrosis of lamellar epithelial cells. In the liver, congestion, necrosis of hepatocytes, fatty infiltration, and brain necrosis and atrophy of neurons. Kidneys showed necrosis of tubules, increased urinary spaces, tubular necrosis in treated fish in groups (C-D) after day 10 of post-exposure. From the findings of our experimental research, we can suggest that triclosan causes toxic effects in bighead carp.

  • Rabia Akram1, Abdul Ghaffar 2, Riaz Hussain 3,*, Iahtasham Khan 4, Vania Lucia de Assis Santana5, Khalid Mehmood 6, Saima Naz 7, Rehana Iqbal1, Hafiz Muhammad Imran3, Muhammad Rafi Qamar3 and Hongyun Zhu8
  • 1 Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Zoology Division, Bhauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan 2 Department of Life Sciences (Zoology), The Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan 3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur- 63000, Pakistan 4 Section of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore Sub-Campus, Jhang, Pakistan 5 National Agricultural Laboratory of Pernambuco, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply of Brazil, Rua Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco CEP 52171-030, Brazil 6 Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63000, Pakistan 7 Department of Zoology, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan 8 Key Laboratory of Clinical Veterinary Medicine in Tibet, Tibet Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College, Linzhi 860000 Tibet, People's Republic of China

Nowadays, poultry production has high demand worldwide. For this purpose, performance parameters are maximized, for example, fast-growing of chicken with low usage of feed and with the better health status of the flock. This increasing demand has led to the use of many antibiotic-free products. There is an increased pressure to decrease the amount of antibiotics used as bacteriostatic or bactericidal agents for poultry, so there is an utmost need for unconventional resolutions to sustain the productivity and efficacy of poultry. Among the substitutions, essential oils (EOs) have a prodigious potential and are usually thought to be natural, free from hazardous deposits and chemicals, and less toxic. EOs are plant-based extracts, and there are about 3,000 known EOs, out of which 300 are identified as useful and commercially important. It is proven that EOs have abundant in vitro and in vivo research to yield special effects on numerous pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The current review provides information on the fundamentals of EOs, the anti-oxidation and immunomodulatory characteristics, the growth-promoting effects, and the activities of EOs against a variety of pathogens in animals/poultry.

  • Qasim Saleem Raza 1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi 1,*, Shafia Tehseen Gul 1, Hamid Irshad 2, Ahad Fayyaz 1, Iqra Zaheer 1, Muhammad Waseem Tahir 1, Zahida Fatima 2, Tahir Zahoor Chohan 3,Muhammad Imran 1, Hadia Ali 1, Hafiz Muhammad Salman Khalid 1, Maria Jamil 1 , Muhammad Irfan Zaheer 4 and Ahrar Khan 1,5,*
  • 1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 2PARC National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan: 3Pakistan Agriculture Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan, 4Poultry Research Institute Murree Road, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 1,5Shandong Vocational Animal Science and Veterinary College, Weifang 261061, China

Intestinal parasitosis is a significant health problem for animal husbandry, leading to economic losses. In the treatment of helminths, synthetic anthelmintics have long been used. However, cases of parasitic resistance to these anthelmintics have been reported worldwide. Solutions have been proposed to solve this problem. Among them is the use of medicinal plants with anthelmintic properties. This work suggests synthesizing the work carried out on evaluating the anthelmintic properties of medicinal plants used to treat intestinal parasitosis of small ruminants. According to the results of the ethnobotanical surveys reported, several medicinal plants are used by the populations to treat intestinal parasitosis of small ruminants. Evaluations of the anthelmintic properties in vitro and or in vivo of some of them have confirmed their potential to be used as an alternative for controlling intestinal parasitosis. However, these results obtained depend on the organ of the species used, the type of extract, and the application dose. Tannins, flavonoids, and essential oils are the secondary metabolites responsible for the anthelmintic activity of these medicinal plants with anthelmintic potential. The efficacy of a plant extract (or powder) also depends on the parasite used in the tests. The results of previous studies confirm the use of medicinal plants in the fight against intestinal parasitosis.

  • Lissette H. Degla 1,5, Julienne Kuiseu 1, Pascal A. Olounlade 1,3*, Sabbas Attindehou 2, Sylvie M. Hounzangbe-Adote 3, Patrick A. Edorh 4 and Latifou Lagnika 5
  • 1Zootechnical Research and Livestock System Unit, Laboratory of Animal and Fisheries Sciences, Doctoral School of Agricultural and Water Sciences, National University of Agriculture, 01 BP: 55 Porto-Novo, Benin 2Animal Health and Biosecurity Research Unit, Laboratory of Animal and Fisheries Sciences, Doctoral School of Agricultural and Water Sciences, National University of Agriculture, 01 BP: 55 Porto-Novo, Benin 3Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology and Animal Health, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin 4Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health (LATSE), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Republic of Benin 5Laboratory of Biochemistry and Bioactive Natural Substances, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Abomey-Calavi, 04BP 0320, Cotonou, Benin

Theileriosis is an intracellular parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical countries and acts as a potential killer causing major constraint on animal's productions leading to high morbidities and even mortalities. This review presents the actual status of Bovine Theileriosis (BTH) and their associated risk factors in Pakistan, China, India, Iran, and Bangladesh. Within this review also ascertains the correlation of BTH with tick abundance, seasonality, and cattle susceptibility. To identify the related papers from different internet databases including Google Scholar, Science Hub, PubMed, Science Direct and Scientific Information database were appraised for articles published during last decade. The research data collected from 5 Asian countries indicate highly variable prevalence of BTH ranging from 2.69-39%. Based on critical analysis of current data (2000-2019) of 5 Asian countries, the highest prevalence rate of BTH was recorded in China (39%) followed in order by Iran (33%), India (31.7%), Pakistan (21.2%) and Bangladesh (2.69%). The difference can be attributed to the ecological and graphical factors and may be different in housing systems. Main vector involves in the transmission of Theileriosis was Hyalomma (80%). June through September was the most favorable months for Theileriosis in all the Asian countries' understudies. Exotic cattle were observed more prone to BTH than local breeds. As far as diagnostic techniques were concerned, understudies data showed that in Asian countries the most adopted method for the diagnosis BTH was the conventional method (41%) after this, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (21%) and serological mixed techniques (23%) were used. Our results suggested updates and highlight the imperative information on the true burden of BTH in some Asian countries.

  • M Arfan Zaman1, Uzma Mehreen1, Warda Qamar1, M Fiaz Qamar1, Muhammad Kashif1, Zohaib Shahid1 and Rao Zahid Abbas2
  • 1Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Jhang, Sub-campus University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-Pakistan; 2Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan