Coccidiosis induces huge economic losses to poultry production. Its control through anticoccidial live vaccines and drugs has been very successful with some limitations because of the cost of production of live vaccines, drug resistance, and residues representing public health concerns. Consequently, there is a crucial need for drug-free production of foods. Useful strategies include environmental, immunological, and genetic approaches; feed additives are recent attitudes involving probiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, phytobiotics as essential oils, antioxidants, and nanobiotics (nanoparticles). A combination of such additives is a recent useful trend. Transgenic Eimeria parasite could fill in the gap in the control of chicken coccidiosis as an efficient anticoccidial vaccine with improved protective efficacy using multiple vaccine antigens. Alternatives justify further studies as therapeutic or prophylactic anticoccidial agents. Full biological and toxicology profiles are crucial for the promising materials which deserve to be applied on a larger scale.
Babesiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and related associated risk factors of bovine babesiosis in district Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 1258 animals (n = 532 buffaloes; n = 726 cattle) were sampled through random sampling technique and analyzed for the detection of inclusion bodies resembling babesiosis through thin smear microscopy. Risk factors regarding breed, specie, age, month of the year, gender, and season were statistically analyzed using chi-square test on SPSS to find the association of different risk factors with the occurrence of this protozoan pathogen. The study has revealed an overall 34.02% prevalence of babesiosis in bovines in district Lahore. The infection rate was statistically insignificant (P>0.05) in cattle's (34.57%) compared to buffaloes (33.27%). The females are at more risk of having babesiosis as compared to males in cattle (OR=01.24, CI=0.82-1.89) as well as buffaloes (OR=01.32, CI=0.81-2.14). The study concludes that babesiosis is prevalent in study district and adult animas and summer months were found significantly associated with the occurrence of this tick-borne disease. These study findings will aid in establishment of better strategies for prevention and control of disease.
Fungal contamination of crops and production of toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) are the inevitable issues throughout the world, mainly in the developing countries. These toxins associated with adverse effects on animals, humans and crops, result in health issues and economic losses. The major mycotoxins that have agro-economic importance are aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, zearalenone and trichothecenes. These toxins are produced by different types of molds that contaminate crops under favorable conditions and become the part of animal and human diet. Several studies have described their hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, toxigenic and mutagenic characteristics, and most mycotoxins represent a considerable risk to animal and human life. Compound stomach animals show some resistance against mycotoxicosis as compared to monogastric animals due to capability of rumen microbiota to degrade mycotoxins. The adverse effects of mycotoxins in humans include hepatocellular carcinoma, Reye's syndrome, Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), immunosuppression, abdominal pain, neural tube defects, infertility and retarded growth in children. This review describes different types of mycotoxins and their adverse effects on animal species and humans by keeping in mind the One-Health aspect.
Poultry industry is growing day by day and it is a major and cheap source of animal protein for human beings. Various bacteria cause serious illness and variety of diseases in poultry birds. The use of tetracycline antibiotics has been increased 4 times in recent years to treat such diseases, leading to the development of drug resistant bacteria in veterinary medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance profile of tetracycline in avian Escherichia coli strains isolated from free ranging chickens of Anhui province, China. For this purpose, disk diffusion method was used to examine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains (n=203) against tetracycline, minocycline, and doxycycline. However, PCR analysis was utilized for detection of the tetracycline resistant genes; tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetM. The overall frequency of phenotypic resistance was 29.1%, which was highest to tetracycline (14.3%), followed by minocycline (6.9%), and doxycycline (7.9%). Whereas the genotypic resistance rate was 24.1%, which include 10.3%, 7.9%, 4.4%, 1.0% and 0.5% resistance rate of tetA, tetG, tetC, tetA + tetC + tetG, and tetA + tetC genes, respectively. Conversely, no isolates were positive for the tetB and tetM genes. The rate of phenotypic resistance (29.1%) was almost in line with genotypic resistance rate (24.1%). Our study demonstrates that chickens are not important contributors to bacterial resistance in an extensive farming system. As such, restrictions on the use of antibiotics could prevent the emergence of resistant pathogens. Furthermore, this is first study of the occurrence of antibiotic resistant E. coli strains in free ranging chickens of Anhui province, China.
Pesticides are widely used in agricultural advancement sector of entire world for increasing crop yield. However, its exposure is not limited only to target organisms instead it is affecting various non-target organisms among which fish being the most prominent one. In severe cases acute amount of various pesticides caused death of fish while lethal changes observed in case of lower amount of these pesticides. Changes in hematological parameters like red blood cells, white blood cells or plasma and serum level alterations leading to histological changes involving liver, kidneys, gills, muscles, brain, intestine in many species of fish exposed to different pesticides. Moreover, genotoxicity was also observed in many cases induced by different categories of pesticides. Extensive and continuous usage of these toxicants affecting the aquatic systems at severe level as a result getting bio-accumulated in food chain. This article emphasized over the pesticidal induced hematological and serum level alterations observed in fish.
Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a novel emerging pathogen contaminated extensively in animal feed and food chains, posing a huge economic loss for animal industry and high risk for human health. This pathogen is a robust omnipresent heat resistant spore former, able to form biofilm and isolated from different environments such as food and atmosphere that occur all year round without any particular geographic distribution. The potential of survival for B. cereus spores in unfavorable conditions pose a considerable threat to food safety and also cause economic losses to the food industry. B. cereus aggravates acute diarrhea and malnourishment in poultry by inducing gizzard erosion and ulceration (GEU). It will facilitate persistent other bacterial infection in the lungs via damaging gastric intestine tract. Also, it can cause serious food safety because it seems difficult to fully prevent their presence in food. It may cause gastrointestinal diseases that trigger emetic and diarrheal symptoms as well as general and local infections related to the respiratory tracts of immunologically threatened individual and newborns. B. cereus produces a wide range of potential virulence factors, including heat stable/labile toxins (cerulide, NHE, HBL, CytK, Ent-FM, bc-D-ENT, CLO, HlyII, HlyIII) and tissue-destructive enzymes (PI-PLC, PC-PLC, SMase, ?-lactamase, InhA1, NprA), but their roles and molecular mechanism in specific infections have not been clarified yet. This review provided a historical record of possible risk factors and pathogenesis of animal industry and highlights the implications for animal industry and food safety by ingestion of the feed-borne Bacillus cereus.
Intestinal parasitosis is a significant health problem for animal husbandry, leading to economic losses. In the treatment of helminths, synthetic anthelmintics have long been used. However, cases of parasitic resistance to these anthelmintics have been reported worldwide. Solutions have been proposed to solve this problem. Among them is the use of medicinal plants with anthelmintic properties. This work suggests synthesizing the work carried out on evaluating the anthelmintic properties of medicinal plants used to treat intestinal parasitosis of small ruminants. According to the results of the ethnobotanical surveys reported, several medicinal plants are used by the populations to treat intestinal parasitosis of small ruminants. Evaluations of the anthelmintic properties in vitro and or in vivo of some of them have confirmed their potential to be used as an alternative for controlling intestinal parasitosis. However, these results obtained depend on the organ of the species used, the type of extract, and the application dose. Tannins, flavonoids, and essential oils are the secondary metabolites responsible for the anthelmintic activity of these medicinal plants with anthelmintic potential. The efficacy of a plant extract (or powder) also depends on the parasite used in the tests. The results of previous studies confirm the use of medicinal plants in the fight against intestinal parasitosis.
STAT3 plays an important role in vascular remodeling, but there are no studies on its protein function and structure. In this study, the physical and chemical properties, hydrophilicity / hydrophobicity, transmembrane domain, phosphorylation site, glycosylation site, subcellular localization, signal peptide distribution and secondary and tertiary structure of STAT3 protein were predicted online by bioinformatics tools. The results showed that the number of amino acids of STAT3 was 771aa, the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.94, the instability index was 49.21, and the average coefficient of hydrophilicity was-0.389. It was found to be a hydrophilic protein with no transmembrane domain, 45 phosphorylation sites and 4 glycosylation sites. The protein is expressed in the nucleus, there is no signal peptide distribution in the whole sequence, and the protein structure is complex. The secondary structure is mainly composed of ?-helix, Extended strand, ?-turn and Random coil, accounting for 50.58%, 11.80%, 2.46% and 35.15%, respectively. The tertiary structure is mainly composed of ?-helix and Random coil. In summary, this study suggests that the amino acid sequence 75-190aa of STAT3 can be used to express antigens and prepare antibodies, and the sequence 737-754aa of STAT3 can be used to prepare peptide antigens This study provides a basis for further exploring the function of STAT3 protein, and lays a foundation for expression and purification of STAT3 protein, preparation of STAT3 antibody and screening of drug targets. This then provides powerful conditions for pathological detection of pulmonary vascular remodeling and gene drug therapy of ascites syndrome in broilers.
This study was designed to investigate the allethrin induced toxico-pathological changes in adult male albino rats. A total of 60 adult male albino rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. Group A served as control. Groups B, C and D were administered orally Allethrin @ 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5g/kg body for 14 experiment days, respectively. Dullness, erected hairs, alopecia, less response towards feed and water, watery droppings, tremors, convulsions and coma were more prominent signs in treated groups. Feed intake and body weight decreased in all treated groups. Mortality was recorded in group C and D. The total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume decreased significantly (P?0.05) in all allethrin treated groups as compared to the control group. Histopathologically, kidneys exhibited condensed nuclei, necrotic tubules and congested renal parenchyma. In liver, vacuolar degeneration in nucleus and cytoplasm was observed. Micro nucleated lymphocytes were also evident in group D treated with the highest dose of allethrin. In conclusion, allethrin induced dose and time dependent toxico-pathological effects in adult male albino rats.
Agro-aquatic ecosystems are mainly and persistently exposed to various unwanted chemicals and pollutants due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals such as pesticides, insecticides, heavy metals, germicides, drug residues, industrial wastes, and feed additives. Randomly kept 16 active fish (bighead carp) in four unlike groups (A to D). Blood and serum were collected on days 5, 10, and 15 of the experiment. Five fish from each group were slaughtered on day 15 of the trial to study histopathological alterations. Mild to moderate different physical ailments like jerking movement, erratic swimming, and mucous secretion from the mouth of fish kept in group D were observed after day 10 of post-exposure. Significantly, lower erythrocyte count, Hb, and hematocrit values while increased values of total white blood cells and neutrophil counts were recorded in fish of groups (C-D). Results on serum chemistry showed a significantly increased quantity of liver function tests (ALT and AST), renal functional tests (urea and creatinine), and cardiac biomarkers. Results on micronuclei and comet assay indicated an increased frequency of DNA damage. The frequency of nuclear and morphological variations in RBCs of fish of group (D) significantly increased compared to the control group. Results on microscopic levels exhibited different histopathological alterations in gills like twisting of secondary lamellae, uplifting of lamellae, lamellar disorganization, and necrosis of lamellar epithelial cells. In the liver, congestion, necrosis of hepatocytes, fatty infiltration, and brain necrosis and atrophy of neurons. Kidneys showed necrosis of tubules, increased urinary spaces, tubular necrosis in treated fish in groups (C-D) after day 10 of post-exposure. From the findings of our experimental research, we can suggest that triclosan causes toxic effects in bighead carp.