Rabia Akram1, Abdul Ghaffar 2, Riaz Hussain 3,*, Iahtasham Khan 4, Vania Lucia de Assis Santana5, Khalid Mehmood 6, Saima Naz 7, Rehana Iqbal1, Hafiz Muhammad Imran3, Muhammad Rafi Qamar3 and Hongyun Zhu8
1 Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Zoology Division, Bhauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan 2 Department of Life Sciences (Zoology), The Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan 3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur- 63000, Pakistan 4 Section of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore Sub-Campus, Jhang, Pakistan 5 National Agricultural Laboratory of Pernambuco, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply of Brazil, Rua Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco CEP 52171-030, Brazil 6 Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63000, Pakistan 7 Department of Zoology, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan 8 Key Laboratory of Clinical Veterinary Medicine in Tibet, Tibet Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College, Linzhi 860000 Tibet, People's Republic of China
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Agro-aquatic ecosystems are mainly and persistently exposed to various unwanted chemicals and pollutants due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals such as pesticides, insecticides, heavy metals, germicides, drug residues, industrial wastes, and feed additives. Randomly kept 16 active fish (bighead carp) in four unlike groups (A to D). Blood and serum were collected on days 5, 10, and 15 of the experiment. Five fish from each group were slaughtered on day 15 of the trial to study histopathological alterations. Mild to moderate different physical ailments like jerking movement, erratic swimming, and mucous secretion from the mouth of fish kept in group D were observed after day 10 of post-exposure. Significantly, lower erythrocyte count, Hb, and hematocrit values while increased values of total white blood cells and neutrophil counts were recorded in fish of groups (C-D). Results on serum chemistry showed a significantly increased quantity of liver function tests (ALT and AST), renal functional tests (urea and creatinine), and cardiac biomarkers. Results on micronuclei and comet assay indicated an increased frequency of DNA damage. The frequency of nuclear and morphological variations in RBCs of fish of group (D) significantly increased compared to the control group. Results on microscopic levels exhibited different histopathological alterations in gills like twisting of secondary lamellae, uplifting of lamellae, lamellar disorganization, and necrosis of lamellar epithelial cells. In the liver, congestion, necrosis of hepatocytes, fatty infiltration, and brain necrosis and atrophy of neurons. Kidneys showed necrosis of tubules, increased urinary spaces, tubular necrosis in treated fish in groups (C-D) after day 10 of post-exposure. From the findings of our experimental research, we can suggest that triclosan causes toxic effects in bighead carp.