Aniqa Shahid1, Muhammad Faizan1 and Muhammad Ali Raza2
1Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2Department of Physics, Govt College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Plant diseases pose a significant threat to global agriculture, impacting crop yield and food security. Traditional methods of disease management often involve the application of chemical pesticides, which raise environmental and health concerns. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising avenue for sustainable and effective plant disease management. This review provides an overview of the applications and mechanisms of action of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) in combating plant pathogens. AgNPs and ZnNPs have garnered attention due to their antimicrobial properties, biocompatibility, and versatility. They exhibit multifaceted mechanisms of action, including membrane disruption, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interference with enzymatic processes, and inhibition of microbial growth. These nanoparticles can effectively target a wide range of plant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Moreover, they can be used as carriers for the controlled release of antimicrobial agents and nutrients, further enhancing their utility in agriculture. Furthermore, AgNPs and ZnNPs have demonstrated compatibility with environmentally friendly and sustainable agricultural practices. Their targeted delivery reduces chemical waste and minimizes environmental contamination. Additionally, these nanoparticles can stimulate the plant's innate defense mechanisms, enhancing its resilience against diseases. This review highlights the potential of AgNPs and ZnNPs as innovative tools for plant disease management, offering sustainable and effective alternatives to conventional pesticides. The ongoing research in this field aims to optimize nanoparticle formulations, assess their safety, and develop integrated disease management strategies to enhance agricultural sustainability and food production.