Usama Mubarik 1§*, Usama Asif2§ and Mehwish3,4*

1Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan 2National Institute of Food Science and Technology (NIFSAT), Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan 4Lyallpur Institute of Management and Sciences, Faisalabad, Pakistan. §These authors have equal contribution to this endeavor.

*Corresponding author: (UM), (Mehwish)

To Cite this Article :

Mubarik U, Asif U and Mehwish, 2023. Inhibition of creatine using different concentrations of aloe vera extract in chicken nuggets. Agrobiological Records 12: 46-52.


Meat is widely regarded as a valuable source of protein in the human diet. However, cooking, frying, and grilling meat can trigger chemical changes that have the potential to be carcinogenic. This is due to the reaction of creatine, which produces heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) when exposed to high temperatures. The conversion of creatine to creatinine during cooking is a key factor in the production of HAAs. Frying meat is particularly risky because it typically involves the use of minimal spices, which could potentially inhibit the formation of HAAs. To address this issue, a recent study sought to explore the use of plant-based extracts to inhibit the development of HAAs in meat products. Specifically, the researchers used aloe vera gel to coat chicken nuggets in three different concentrations: 40, 60, and 80%. Aloe vera gel was chosen for its high content of bioactive compounds and antioxidants, as well as its cellulose content, which could potentially act as a barrier to HAA formation. The results of the study were promising, with aloe gel-coated samples showing up to 44% inhibition in DPPH analysis and a reduction in creatine levels from 1.12 to 0.52mg/mL. The color of the nuggets was also observed, with lower levels of redness and yellowness. Overall, the study concluded that aloe gel-coated nuggets were able to significantly reduce creatine levels during frying, which in turn resulted in a reduction in HAA production. These findings suggest that plant-based extracts may be a valuable tool in the effort to mitigate the potential carcinogenic effects of cooking meat.

Article Overview

  • Volume : 12 (Apr-Jun 2023)
  • Pages : 46-52