Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, Department of Sustainable International Agriculture, Universität Kassel, Germany
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cash crop and is widely grown on approximately 220 million thousand hectares around the globe. Pakistan is included in the top ten wheat-producing countries in the world. However, due to climate change and biotic and biotic stresses, wheat yield and quality are continuously compromising. Heat stress is a negative constraint on wheat production (it is anticipated to decrease by 6% for each degree increase in temperature) and quality characteristics. Specifically terminal heat stress is a more devastating factor, while the plant responds in a variety of ways to withstand heat stress, for instance, scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and osmotic adjustment. To, address the global food security challenges, it is essential to develop genetically superior heat-tolerant cultivars that can withstand heat stress with high yield per hectare. Achieving thermotolerance in wheat involves a multifaceted approach, incorporating various procedures such as screening, breeding utilizing existing wheat germplasm, molecular breeding techniques, genetic engineering methods, and the incorporation of genes from wild germplasm.