AVIAN COCCIDIOSIS: RECENT ADVANCES IN ALTERNATIVE CONTROL STRATEGIES AND VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
Hanem Fathy Khater1, Hocine Ziam2, Asghar Abbas3, Rao Zahid Abbas4, Muhammad Asif Raza3, Kashif Hussain2, Eman Z Younis5,
Ibrahim Taha Radwan6 and Abdelfattah Selim7
1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.
2Biotechnologies, Environment and Health Laboratory, Saad Dahlab University, Blida 1, BP 270, 9060 Ouled Yaich, Blida, Algeria.
3Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan.
4Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
5Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences-Ghemines, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya.
6Supplementary General Sciences Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Future University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt.
7Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Coccidiosis induces huge economic losses to poultry production. Its control through anticoccidial live vaccines and drugs has been very successful with some limitations because of the cost of production of live vaccines, drug resistance, and residues representing public health concerns. Consequently, there is a crucial need for drug-free production of foods. Useful strategies include environmental, immunological, and genetic approaches; feed additives are recent attitudes involving probiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, phytobiotics as essential oils, antioxidants, and nanobiotics (nanoparticles). A combination of such additives is a recent useful trend. Transgenic Eimeria parasite could fill in the gap in the control of chicken coccidiosis as an efficient anticoccidial vaccine with improved protective efficacy using multiple vaccine antigens. Alternatives justify further studies as therapeutic or prophylactic anticoccidial agents. Full biological and toxicology profiles are crucial for the promising materials which deserve to be applied on a larger scale.
Keywords: Vaccination, Transgenic Eimeria, Botanicals, Essential oils, Probiotics, Synbiotics, Organic acids, Nanoparticles.